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RAYFRACT® Seismic Refraction & Borehole Tomography - Subsurface Seismic Velocity Models for Geotechnical Engineering and Exploration

Our Rayfract® refraction tomography software allows reliable imaging of subsurface velocity structure including faults, strong lateral velocity variation and other velocity anomalies. Our Smooth inversion 2D tomographic method is based on physically realistic modeling of first break propagation, for P-wave and S-wave surveys. Alternatively, use our 1.5D DeltatV inversion.

We now allow plotting of 1.5D refractors obtained with layer-based Plus-Minus and Wavefront refraction methods, on 2D WET tomograms. Map traveltimes to refractors interactively or semi-automatically. Smooth inversion of borehole surveys with constant-velocity starting model, for crosshole, zero-offset VSP, walkaway VSP, reverse VSP and uphole refraction surveys. Bidirectional frequency filtering of traces, with single-pole or Chebyshev-Butterworth filter. Check your picks for reciprocal traveltime errors in Trace|Offset gather display. Shift picks for all traces of same shot with trigger delay correction. Review our SAGEEP 2010 manual (PowerPoint version, function key help).

We support import of SEGY and SEG-2 seismic data files, 3rd-party ASCII files and .HDR batch import of shots. Our XTV inversion models critical refraction of first breaks (intercept-time method) besides diving waves (with DeltatV method) and allows better modeling of low-velocity weathering overburden without a gradient, now both for 1D starting model and for pseudo-2D imaging. DeltatV and XTV inversion output can be used as a starting model for WET inversion. Visit our booth no. 34 at SAGEEP 2014 in Boston, Massachusetts.


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WET tomogram with core. Starting model obtained with DeltatV method.

View these tutorials, application samples and theoretical publications :

Blind Test of Methods for Obtaining 2-D Near-Surface Seismic Velocity Models from First-Arrival Traveltimes (Colin Zelt et al., JEEG Sep 2013)

Expanded abstract presented at SAGEEP 2014, Boston, MA U.S.A.

Sloan et al. use SRT and MASW to detect shallow tunnels (JAG Dec 2013)

An Evaluation of Methods and Available Software for SRT Analysis (Jacob R. Sheehan et al., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, JEEG March 2005. Compares Rayfract with GeoTomo LLC GeoCT-II and OYO SeisImager)

Optimized interpretation of SAGEEP 2011 blind data, with Smooth inversion and Plus-Minus method

Kotyrba and Schmidt show combination of SRT and ERT for the detection of abandoned mine workings

Ramboll uses SRT for offshore wind farm planning, with extensive marine streamer survey

Our contribution to forum.detectation.com SRT modeling and interpretation, with 1.5D DeltatV and 2D WET inversion

1.5D DeltatV and 2D WET inversion, CMP Intercept-Time layered interpretation of synthetic traveltime data

Imaging brine zones with SRT and ERT (Thomas Schicht, K-UTEC AG / EAGE First Break Aug 2013)

Comparing MASW with SRT and VSP (Dal Moro, Keller / EAGE NSG 2013)

Reverse VSP survey, 49 shots from two boreholes into 24 receivers (GHD 2013)

Tutorial showing how to build a "basement step" model grid with Surfer, and how to generate and invert synthetic shots for this model

Updated PalmFig9 tutorial, now showing Smooth inversion and layer-based Wavefront interpretation of synthetic shots for syncline model

Interpretation of 7 shots into 24 receivers with Smooth inversion, Plus-Minus and Wavefront layer-based methods (Geo2X 2013)

Determination of rippability (excavatability) characteristics of subsurface materials, for box culvert construction (Gasch Geophysical Services, Inc. 2013)

Prof. Bob Whiteley compares published interpretations of SAGEEP 2011 blind data with true model

The seismic transmission volume (J.G. Hagedoorn, G. Diephuis EAGE GP 2001. Explains Fresnel volume)

Imaging a fault trace with ERT and SRT (Bavec et al., Geological Survey of Slovenia 2012)

Determination of stratigraphic boundaries with SRT and push probe (Linn Karlsson, Gothenburg University 2011)

Imaging of shale bedrock with SRT and RQD (GEOVision 2010)

Ground Proving Three SRT Programs (Dennis R. Hiltunen et al. 2007, University of Florida. Compares OYO SeisImager and Optim LLC SeisOpt Pro with Rayfract)

Imaging an abandoned mining shaft (GeoExpert AG 2013)

Burton et al. use SRT, ERT and borehole logs to investigate preferential flowpaths for contaminants

Powers and Burton use SRT to investigate the depth to competent bedrock, at a construction site

Ruiz-Villanueva et al. use SRT, Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and geotechnical tests for hydrogeomorphic characterization of a shallow landslide

Travelletti et al. use SRT and laser scanning to define the geometry, the kinematics and the failure mechanism of a large landslide

Bedrosian et al. use SRT, ERT, TEM, MT and LiDAR to image structure beneath an earthen dam

Gazdek et al. use SRT to image soil improvement by embedding of gravel cylinder columns (piles)

Prof. Bob Whiteley comments on Mt. Bulga line 00 SAGEEP 2012 interpretation by Dr. Palmer

Smooth inversion with free trial, of synthetic data for thrust fault model. Shows successful imaging of strong lateral velocity variation.

Smooth XTV inversion with free trial, of Jacques Jenny THEORIC2.ASC synthetic data for a layered model. Shows Surfer gridding artefacts.

Smooth inversion with free trial, of Palmer Mt. Bulga data. Shows interactive varying of WET wavepath width, to control non-uniqueness.

Master Thesis Stefan Jansen, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen 2010. Evaluates Rayfract with synthetic data.

Comparison of WET tomography with ERT and Nakamura H/V method (Benjumea et al. 2011)

Smooth inversion compared with XTV inversion and Wavefront method, for long profile (Joanneum)

Interpretation of long profile with Smooth inversion, DeltatV inversion, Wavefront and Plus-Minus method (GeoExpert ag)

Smooth inversion of 6 shots into 12 channels (Guyana Goldfields)

Geothermal fault imaging with ERT, SRT and SP ( Lamb et al., Boise State University, AGU 2011)

Interpretation of synthetic and field data with surface wave analysis and Rayfract traveltime tomography, Boiero and Socco, EAGE Geophysical Prospecting Nov 2010.

Integrating Hydrogeological and Geophysical Methods for the Characterization of a Deltaic Aquifer System, Falgas et al. 2011.

Thrust fault modeling and imaging with Surfer 8 and Rayfract 3.19

Import SEG-2 shots into borehole profile database, update header data, Smooth invert (GHD data)

Robert J. Whiteley comments on Mt. Bulga interpretation published by Dr. Palmer

Combine two adjacent cross-hole surveys (3 boreholes) into one tomogram (LNEC data)

Interpretation of First-Arrival Travel Times with Wavepath Eikonal Traveltime inversion and Wavefront method (Rohdewald, SAGEEP 2011)

PowerPoint presentation of above blind interpretation (Rohdewald, SAGEEP 2011)

Tutorial how to build and use your own layer-based starting model

Tutorial showing how to resort borehole traces by common receiver

An analytical raypath approach to the wavefront method (Ali Ak, Geophysical Prospecting November 1990. Compares Wavefront method with Plus-Minus and GRM)

Detecting perched water bodies using surface-seismic time-lapse traveltime tomography (Gaines et al, SEG 2010. Includes velocity error analysis)

Subsurface tunnel detection using ERT and SRT : a case study (Riddle, Hickey et al., SAGEEP 2010)

Time-lapse seismic measurements on a small earthen embankment during an internal erosion experiment (Hickey et al., SAGEEP 2009)

Seismic measurement for detecting underground high-contrast voids (Hickey et al., SAGEEP 2009)

Interpretation of Jacob Sheehan's Epikarst model

Groundwater level determination with SRT : "Water seismic index" (Gerardo Grelle and Francesco Maria Guadagno, University of Sannio)

Enhanced coastal geotechnics with integrated marine seismic reflection and extended array SRT (Robert Whiteley, Matthieu Bardout and Simon Stewart 2010; includes synthetic model with velocity inversion)

Smooth 2D inversion compared with conventional Wavefront interpretation of Palmer Mt. Bulga data set

Building syncline model and forward modeling data described by Derecke Palmer in EAGE Geophysical Prospecting March 2010

Improving interpretation of syncline model

Plume and Lithologic Profiling with Surface Resistivity and Seismic Tomography (David B. Watson et al. 2005, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tennessee)

Comparison of pseudo-2D Delta-t-V starting model with 1D-gradient starting model, for basement depression (syncline model) described by Derecke Palmer

Is the Optimum XY spacing of the Generalized Reciprocal Method (GRM) constant or variable? Paper presented by Hamdy H. Seisa at 67th Annual Meeting of the German Geophysical Society (DGG), Aachen, March 26-29 2007

Determining depth of blast induced damage in a mine wall (J.A. Singer et al. 2009)

Geophysical characterisation of karstic networks (Roger Guérin et al. 2009, Comptes Rendus Geosciences Volume 341, Issues 10-11)

The Gschliefgraben Landslide (Robert Marschallinger et al. 2009, Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences Vol. 102/2; compares P-wave tomography with GRM)

SRT for volume analysis of saturated alluvium (Michael H. Powers and Bethany L. Burton, USGS 2006. Compares GeoTomo LLC GeoCT-II with Rayfract)

Tutorial showing interpretation of 5 shots recorded with 12 channels

Beach subsurface imaging with reflection seismic, WET inversion and MASW (Mark G. Olson, Advanced Geoscience, Inc. 2008)

Geophysical investigation of the Sandalp rock avalanche deposits (Laura V. Socco et al. Journal of Applied Geophysics Jan 2010. Compares resistivity tomography with seismic P-wave tomography, and active and passive surface wave analysis)

Seismic characterization of an Alpine site (L.V. Socco et al. EAGE Near Surface Geophysics Aug 2008. Correlates WET tomography with reflection, surface wave and pseudo-2D shear wave interpretation plus downhole measurement)

Underwater SRT (Robert J. Whiteley and Simon B. Stewart 2008. WET tomography confirmed with onshore boreholes)

WET tomography compared with conventional refraction and magnetic lineaments (Håkan Mattsson, GeoVista AB, SKB report R-07-56 Sep 2007, pages 131-144)

Sub-bottom river imaging with Smooth inversion and constant-velocity starting model (Geotomographie GmbH data)

Active landslide imaging with two crossing lines, different receiver spacing (JOANNEUM RESEARCH data)

Smooth inversion of cross-hole survey, with constant-velocity starting model (International Geophysical Technology S.L. data)

Smooth inversion of Geometrics SeisImager sample file (Geofisica Misure s.n.c. data)

Smooth inversion of Optim LLC SeisOpt® data set (FUGRO WEST data)

2D sections of porosity and water saturation percent from combined resistivity and seismic surveys for hydrogeologic studies (R. Mota and F. Monteiro dos Santos, SEG The Leading Edge June 2006. Simulated Annealing of Res2DInv and Rayfract output)

Sinkhole imaging with Smooth 2D inversion compared with conventional Wavefront interpretation

Velocity imaging through complex near-surface structures by tomography (Xianhuai Zhu, EAGE 64th Conference & Exhibition, Florence 2002. Shows diffraction and scattering of first break energy penetrating thin high-velocity Basalt layer)

Land Streamer Aided Geophysical Studies at Saqqara, Egypt (Carlyle R. Miller et al. JEEG December 2005; HTML)

Client WET interpretations imaging faults, dikes, boulders and stratigraphy (Terra Geosciences 2007)

Refraction seismic theory and application (Jacques Jenny)

Subsurface velocity imaging below street (Zivko Terzic, 2007)

Comparison of shallow refraction interpretation methods for regolith mapping (Robert J. Whiteley and Peter J. Eccleston, ASEG Exploration Geophysics Dec 2006 final draft)

Data interpretation with Rayfract® software (Microsoft PowerPoint slide show)

Comparison of pseudo-2D Delta-t-V starting model with 1D-gradient starting model, for basement depression model as described by Jacob Sheehan

Comparison of 2D WET tomographic imaging with conventional interpretation (Håkan Mattsson, GeoVista AB)

seg2_edit; A Program for Editing and Manipulating SEG-2 Files, by K. J. Ellefsen (USGS Open-File Report)

Tau-p SRT and statics, compared with well stratigraphy and applied to reflection survey (WesternGeco)

Rayfract in Marine Surveys (Zivko Terzic, 2006)

Plus-Minus Method (J.G. Hagedoorn 1959, EAGE Geophysical Prospecting, volume 7, pp. 158-182)

Comparison of pseudo 2D Delta-t-V starting model with 1D gradient starting model

Imaging of dynamic Poisson's ratio with fail-safe "Smooth inversion" as implemented for version 2.51

Investigation of a landfill with SRT, ERT and Electromagnetic methods (William E. Doll et al. 2001, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tennessee; Adobe Acrobat; compares Rayfract with Rimrock Geophysics SIPT-2 software)




More tutorials, application samples and theoretical publications


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